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The representation on a flat plane of any part of the surface of the Earth or celestial sphere: cordiform, double-hemisphere, gnomic, mercator, polar, ptolemaic.

An example of the Mercator projection and also a hemisphere projection in one map. This is a black and white map by Stent, based on an earlier work by Speed, showing the whole world in the East and West Hemispheres. Around the edges of the map are cosmological illustrations, in addition to illustrations of the four elements.