Ancient Rome is established; the arts, science, and trade flourish.
Anaximander of Miletus produces the first known world map, representing the Earth as a cylinder.
The Babylonians begin producing local maps carved into stone tablets, some of the earliest maps ever recorded.
Hecataeus of Miletus produces a world map, representing the Earth as a disc made up of two continents, surrounded by an ocean.
The Greek explorer Scylax voyages to the Mediterranean. The record of his journey becomes the basis for Medieval maps of the region.
Geographical writing begins in China: the Book of Documents describes the characteristics of China's nine provinces.
Pythagoras hypothesises that the Earth is a sphere.
Herodotus travel to Europe, Asia, and Libya. He documents his voyages in a manuscript called the "Histories".