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One of the most influential cartographic works of all time, the Geographia was written by Claudius Ptolemy in c. 150 CE. The text includes an atlas and a treatise on cartography. It was translated into Latin in the13th century, and widely reissued and updated with new information and maps by cartographer such as Leinhart Holl in 1482 and Martin Waldseemüller in 1513. Detailed information about Ptolemy and his works, including the Geographia, can be found here.

A black and white engraving of a world map on a Ptolemaic projection, showing the known extent of the earth in a lozenge shape, and surrounded by windheads