T-O Map

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One of the earliest attempts to diagram the roundness of the earth and the essential geography of the known world. The "T" of the T-O map may come from the Greek "tau," a form of the cross adopted by early Christians as a symbol of their faith. East is usually at the top in a T-O Map. The vertical line of the "T" represents the Mediterranean Sea and the horizontal line usually represents the Don River on the left (together with the Sea of Azov, Black Sea, Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea), and the Nile on the right.

An excerpt from an atlas featuring an early attempt at a T-O map surrounding by text.